The Georgian Mathematical Union (GMU, formerly Georgian Mathematical Society) was founded in February 21, 1923. One of its founders and the first president was Andrea Razmadze. After his death in 1929 the Georgian Mathematical Society was inactive until 1962, when it was re-established due to efforts of V. Kupradze, B. Khvedelidze, L. Gokieli and A. Kharadze. Mathematicians from scientific research institutes, institutions of higher education and secondary schools consolidated in its ranks.

The mission of the Georgian Mathematical Union is to promote mathematical sciences, especially among the younger generation, to help train professional mathematicians, to defend professional rights of members, to establish and strengthen contacts with colleagues from abroad and with international organizations such as the International Mathematical Union and the European Mathematical Society. To this end GMU organizes public meetings where novel scientific results are reported and discussed as well as commemoration meetings devoted to the outstanding mathematicians. It considers the burning issues of mathematical research and teaching of mathematics, collaborates with teachers, participates in consideration of educational standards and mathematical textbooks.

The first president of the Georgian Mathematical Society in 1923-1929 was Andrea Razmadze. In 1962 Viktor Kupradze headed revived Society (1962-1966). After him Levan Gokieli (1966-1970), Archil Kharadze (1970-1974) and Levan Magnaradze (1974-1994) led the Society.

In 1990 the Georgian Mathematical Society became one of the founders of the European Mathematical Society and in 1991 joined as a member to the International Mathematical Union. In 1994 it was renamed to the Georgian Mathematical Union. After that David Natroshvili (1994-1997 and 2017-present), Roland Duduchava (1997-2001 and 2009-2017), Temuri Vepkhvadze (2001-2005) and Jondo Sharikadze (2005-2009) were the presidents of GMU.